Shaped like an isosceles triangle, Birbhum is located to the northern extremity of the Burdwan Division. The district of Birbhum is bounded on the north and west by Santhal Paraganas, on the south by the district of Burdwan and on the east by Murshidabad and Burdwan. The Ajay River separates Birbhum from Burdwan.
The history of Birbhum states that, in the beginning the present Birbhum was included partly in the country, "Rarh" and partly in "Vajjabhumi ". While part of Rarh, was well watered by rivers and rich in alluvial soil, the Vajjabhumi, the country of Thunderbolt, was wilder and rugged. According to the Jaina traditions, during the 5th Century, B.C., Mahavira, the last great Tirthankara, made a travel through these two tracts of land.
Initially ruled over by the Maurayan Emperors, Rarh came under the rule of the Guptas, of Shasankas and of Harshavardhana and then formed a part of the Pala kingdom. During the middle of 12th Century A.D. it became included in the empire of the Sena kings. The 13th Century A.D. saw the district passing over under the rule of the Muhammedans and after this for many centuries this land was ruled by the Hindu chiefs, called Bir Rajas.
Although until 1787, Birbhum was administered from Murshidabad, later on a separate administration was required and for that Birbhum was joined with Vishnupur and remained like this till 1793. In 1809, Birbhum collectorship was abolished, and in 1820, Birbhum was again constituted as a separate district. It restored to its former area excluding a few estates transferred to the Jungle Mahals. In 1872 the district of Birbhum had a total area of 1,344 square miles. Presently the district covers an area of 4545 Sq. Kms. The important rivers of the district include, the Mor, the Ajay, the Brahmani, the Pagla, the Bansloi, and the Kopai.
The major visiting places in and around the district of Birbhum are:
Birbhum experiences a dry and mild climate. Generally the hot weather lasts from mid of March to the mid of the June, the cold weather from mid of October to the mid of March while the rainy season is from the mid of June to the mid of October.